Kuglermaag

Dear reader

Change all over the car industry: automated driving, connectivity in a system of systems, digital services, artificial intelligence, new mobility concepts, and electric vehicles – feel free to add your own project requirements to this list of newcomers. Planning and decision-making are like a guessing game where the only thing you can rely on is that the car will have wheels. How should Jane or John Doe, the average project engineer, or even a departmental head, cope with all this overload?

Well, you won’t be surprised to hear that no-one at Kugler Maag Cie has mastered this new conjuring trick either. There’s no such thing as a silver bullet. It remains a fiendish problem, or to use the words of Berkeley scholar Horst Rittel, »wicked.« German speakers know what he means when he refers to »ill-defined planning problems.« To respond to the challenges facing the industry, we take an in-depth look at integration. Of course, we don’t pull a catch-all solution out of the hat. But we do address the key challenges of each issue and ask what the real requirements are. It’s no mean task and we’re nothing like finished yet. At the same time, we’d like you to be part of the solution. That’s why we’re starting with this workshop report.

And there’s plenty to report. With each issue of Concepts, you’ll gain a more complete picture. In this first issue, we introduce you to »Automotive integrated Development«.

AiD is, in short, the backbone of our methodology – an approach that allows development tasks to be aligned from the initial concept down to each fine detail, so practitioners will find it useful. AiD is even designed to handle conflicting requirements faced by engineers – process maturity, innovation, responsiveness, functional safety, cybersecurity, usability, to name a few. And let’s not forget robustness, because the entire vehicle should interact reliably with vehicles specified elsewhere. Does this pique your interest? Then you should get to know AiD.

Spoiler alert! In the next issue of Concepts, you will discover how we integrate our machine-learning process model with AiD. This approach will also be demonstrated on a real customer case. As the number of challenges faced by industry grows, so does AiD.

The Concept crew at Kugler Maag Cie

Automotive integrated Development – a robust approach to keeping project risks under control

As more and more vehicles evolve into connected systems, an increasing number of overlaps are developing between different areas of specialization. This trend towards connectivity and digitalization is increasingly dovetailing driving functions with back-end functionalities. Established requirements are now being supplemented with new ones, such as data security and updatability. Technical development will certainly not become less challenging. So how will project managers at carmarkers and suppliers deal with all this change? Can they keep pace and cope with these added levels of complexity? If you need a better overview, the Automotive integrated Development (AiD) blueprint comes in handy. As well as helping you manage tasks, it’s also useful for controlling risk.

Project managers are now expected to invest a great deal of time and energy in non-functional requirements stemming from ISO standards, systems engineering topics, and corporate management systems: On Monday you’re establishing a baseline, on Tuesday you’re running into a change request, and on Wednesday, a potential cybersecurity incident crops up, demanding your full attention. To maintain an overview of the complexity of development projects, every decision-maker needs a solid understanding of project risks and dependencies. Engineering excellence requires absolute transparency. And – while we’re on the topic – with so many new cybersecurity regulations looming, insurance companies to think about, and an increasing number of critical consumers out there, newcomers from far-flung countries (who might think they can cover their eyes and hope for the best) will soon come unstuck. Innovative cars are a big thing at the moment, but they’re built on a foundation of functional safety, operational safety, and cybersecurity, without which nothing is allowed to happen. So, what can be done to establish order and transparency in this maelstrom of non-functional requirements?

Backed by Kugler Maag Cie, Green Hills Software has succeeded in transforming our existing processes into a single, adaptable product life cycle. We are expanding this integrated life cycle consistently to meet new requirements.

Tim Reed Sr. VP of Advanced Products @ Green Hills Software

Always on the safe side

Complex development projects are not entirely different to the systems they result in: Crucial performance criteria – such as robustness, scalability, and maintainability – require well thought-out system architectures. It’s no different with projects. Without robust project and process architectures, you can’t organize internal and external collaboration properly. You also can’t manage requests to make changes. This is where Automotive integrated Development – or AiD – comes into play. The AiD blueprint enables you to model project architecture, which is basically a counterpart of system architecture. An important mainstay in doing this is provided by your design and quality artifacts. For each project, you can draw on work products and any deadlines set for required deliverables and use these to plan critical paths.

Always on the safe side

It doesn’t matter if an artifact falls under system engineering tasks or whether it’s required for cybersecurity reasons – the y-axis allocation of specialist tasks is captured on timelines and ultimately, it’s deadlines that establish order and dictate the pace. This provides an organizational framework and sets your priorities for all key activities along the entire E/E product life cycle. As the project manager and decision-maker, you always know how far you’ve come with your project. As for your software developers and engineers – do they know which boxes need ticking on the to-do list, as well as boxes relating to who, when, and exactly what? The process drives everything that needs organizing and managing – tools, task allocations, and that scarcest of resources: awareness. By carefully basing your project management on processes and corresponding deliverables, you ensure the value stream keeps moving forward.

Complex development projects are not entirely different to the systems they result in: Crucial performance criteria – such as robustness, scalability, and maintainability – require well thought-out system architectures. It’s no different with projects. Without robust project and process architectures, you can’t organize internal and external collaboration properly. You also can’t manage requests to make changes. This is where Automotive integrated Development – or AiD – comes into play. The AiD blueprint enables you to model project architecture, which is basically a counterpart of system architecture. An important mainstay in doing this is provided by your design and quality artifacts. For each project, you can draw on work products and any deadlines set for required deliverables and use these to plan critical paths.

Processes without silo thinking

Focusing on the value stream also makes things more efficient. By basing methods on the process – and thus also outcomes – you avoid overlapping effort at the company or tinkering around with options that no-one needs. Departments are taken out of their ivory towers, forging links between software engineers, hardware developers and front-line mechanics. Not only do interdependencies become transparent, everyone knows which of their co-workers are waiting for which artifacts. Having a concrete view of processes is an excellent way to gain an overview. Information dovetailing with processes is available for everyone to see and is always up to date. This is achieved by offering user-specific views of the critical path. Turning the spotlight on processes is made possible by systematically breaking down all activities that will occur during given workstreams. It’s not the fact that department X is responsible for something that matters, or that Smith and Jones have always done things that way. What really matters are responsibilities associated with certain roles and instructions you have issued.

AiD is definitely not some sort of new ‘model’ that will lead to even more requirements. That’s no use to anybody.

Christian Hertneck, Principal @ Kugler Maag Cie

»The idea is to pinpoint essential paths and interdependencies as you make your way through the jungle of sometimes incredibly diverse requirements driven by standards and norms. Using AiD addresses the typical kinds of risks you encounter early on in the development process« explains Hertneck.

Nothing gets swept under the carpet

Because AiD can show in advance which non-functional requirements will impact your project, expected outcomes can no longer be overlooked during planning. And there are further benefits: AiD makes it clear which requirements definitely need to be addressed during concept development. »This makes it possible to plan essential activities in advance,« Hertneck emphasizes, pointing to perfect examples of this such as cybersecurity factors and software update capabilities. »If these are taken into account from the outset, they can be allocated directly to architectural components – a prerequisite for robust systems and security by design.«

AiD is designed to be scalable across the entire organization, so you can apply it to any department or product, plus a whole host of company services. To ensure it delivers the desired results in any type of organization, AiD offers a blueprint for the kinds of projects you deal with, based on projects of a comparable size, with comparable roles in the value chain and comparable regulatory conditions – such as safety-critical applications or areas such as hardware and machine engineering. In addition, the focus on deliverables makes it easier to install systematic review mechanisms, as well as feedback loops pulling in representatives from all involved areas of engineering. These built-in learning cycles are an ideal opportunity to acquire additional experience, to the benefit of current and future AiD projects. By continuously adapting your processes, AiD takes you to a higher level and becomes a kind of knowledge database, capturing all instances of best practice at your company.

Conclusion

Systems are becoming increasingly complex, fueled by convergence between different fields, which is only heightened by increasingly tight deadlines. As a result, project transparency is a key factor in quickly and reliably creating electronic systems. AiD lays risks and critical paths bare even before your projects get underway, empowering you to always keep projects under control.

Why to choose AiD
Com­pre­hen­sive

Covers all relevant VDA requirements, standards and regulations

Ex­ten­dible

Also for other workstreams such as AI

Modular

Dovetails easily with new and in-house workstreams

Cus­tom­izable

Adapts to your project landscape and processes

Adaptable

Can be tailored individually to your project and process landscape

Future-proof

A basis for meeting new regulations such as UNECE

Conversation about integrated development

Hello Christian, »integration« is on everyone’s lips in E/E development. For example, there’s a trend toward closer connectivity and stronger digitalization, leading to more overlaps in backend and on-board functionality.

As a result, new criteria are coming to the fore – like data security and update features. What’s the best way to deal with this increasing complexity?

By making the required activities transparent, structured, and interlinked. We’ve developed a blueprint to address the challenge called AiD – i.e. Automotive integrated Development. AiD is not about creating a new »model« with ever more requirements. That’s no help to anyone. Instead, the aim is to show essential paths and dependencies on the journey through the jungle of different requirements stemming from standards and norms.

Using AiD allows you to address typical risks early in development. By highlighting dependencies, crucial activities can be planned, estimated, and traced – good and early. For example, concepts and assessments of safety and cybersecurity aspects flow into the architecture directly. New tasks such as machine learning or data management can also be taken up along the same lines.

Christian Hertneck

Christian Hertneck is a Principal at Kugler Maag Cie. For more than 20 years, one of his passions has been developing organizational processes and competences that are both sustainable and in tune with individuals’ capabilities in order to deliver innovation and success.

What exactly can Automotive integrated Development help me with?

AiD is a kind of blueprint or generic construction plan for essential activities encountered throughout the E/E product life cycle in the automotive environment. The aim of AiD is to provide different perspectives of necessary activities and how they should be integrated. For example, if I have to integrate data management and security into my engineering activities, AiD provides me with a condensed overview of the exact activities required to do this, including dependencies.

What are the benefits for suppliers and automobile manufacturers?

AiD makes it possible to address each challenge within the overall process. By adopting an integrated, holistic approach, it provides key insights into every aspect. It also lays a foundation for comparing existing and potential approaches that could be adopted within the organization. We also support our partners during implementation based on our strong track record in practical application.

Where do you see the main challenges during implementation?

One of the current challenges faced by our customers is working out the essential factors that dictate the content of the AiD blueprint. I can name examples, such as agile methods and practices only being implemented half-heartedly, or not being based on proper processes. As a result, essential activities needed to meet standards are either not tackled at all or only when it’s too late.

One problem we often run into during customer projects is that measures needed to safeguard data security and product security (including UNECE, SOTIF, functional safety, and cybersecurity) are developed much too late. That’s dangerous.

As in the past, many development projects are based on electronic or hardware considerations, although most aspects of functionality are now about the software, which is why people now talk about the »software-centric organization.«

There are also numerous examples relating to the product life cycle. Many services involving or relating to modern vehicles now depend on your ability to master data. What we often find is that there’s no systematic approach for handling or managing data – from development to operation – so connectivity or data operations are being neglected.

But I also encounter the classic issues such as the late inclusion of internal and external interfaces in areas like production, services, or sales. And then of course there’s the challenge of achieving and maintaining maturity and process capability to meet agreed timings, costs, and quality requirements.

In what ways will Automotive integrated Development change the work of development units?

Development work has already changed massively due to globalization. Teams now work on projects across entirely different time zones and cultures – and systems now involve numerous partners along the supply chain. The interdependencies are intensifying with each new trend that comes along – such as digitalization, machine learning, connectivity, or new mobile solutions. Therefore, AiD is the right answer to the amalgamation of locations, value creation partners and, finally, technologies –  we create transparency along the entire value chain and the entire product life cycle.

Thanks for the interview!

The interview with Christian Hertneck, Principal at Kugler Maag Cie, was conducted by Olga Henzel.

AUTOMOTIVE-READY AT EVERY STEP @ GREEN HILLS SOFTWARE

Based in Santa Barbara, California, Green Hills Software describes itself as a leading vendor of functional safety and cybersecurity in the field of embedded software – a fitting profile given the company’s dominant position in real-time operating systems. For several years, Kugler Maag Cie’s experts have been working closely with Green Hills as it secures its foothold in the automotive market in order to ensure that its process landscape adheres fully to industry requirements.

Green Hills Software came to the market with unique expertise and an agile mindset acquired in industries subject to totally different regulations compared to the automotive sector. To ensure Green Hills adheres to automotive requirements, Kugler Maag Cie helped it establish an integrated development life cycle along with corresponding structures. Not only will this help the company expand its business, but it also enables it to respond to different market requirements. In doing so, the integrated process landscape combines the requirements of:

  • Process maturity according to Automotive SPICE®
  • Functional safety (ISO 26262)
  • Cybersecurity (ISO 21434 according to UNECE R.155)

Each of the four project stages was underpinned by regular audits and assessments so that success could be quantified and adjustments made if necessary. The findings of each inspection were directly incorporated into implementation measures during the next project phase.

//Read the full story

THE NORTH AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE

This summer has seen a whirlwind of activity, with many areas of business picking up momentum again. Probably the area of highest growth has been cybersecurity, as manufacturers and suppliers alike strive to prepare for the impending enforcement of UNECE regulations next year. Companies have become proactive and sought help not only with auditing but also with implementing improvements. In addition to the integration of new cybersecurity management systems (CSMS), this has touched on the methods applied to companies’ engineering policies, with an increasing focus on the traditional aspects that support the remaining areas of ISO 21434 – e.g. software update management systems (SUMS). Interestingly, this has included deep dives into areas that some corporations mastered a long time ago – such as configuration management and systems engineering – as they realized that such development foundations constitute an important bedrock upon which security (and safety) must be built. As such, the impending regulations have unearthed significant demand for help – customers want to get fit rather than risk revenue.

The summer of 2021 also marked the successful hosting of Gate4SPICE, which focused on effective modeling with the Automotive SPICE model. A variety of presentations took place, followed by group discussions, all in a pleasant outdoor setting that was literally a breath of fresh air on a fascinating topic. We are co-organizing the next North American Gate4SPICE on October 14. This time it will be held at IBM in downtown Detroit. More soon!

Another change we’ve witnessed this year is that companies have been budgeting next year’s projects even earlier than normal. As was the case for 2020 and 2021, nervousness surrounding the pandemic and chip shortages has resulted in many companies deciding to wait and see what happens, shifting some budgets back into Q3 and Q4. Despite this, there are no indications that 2022 will be following the same pattern, and the more ambitious companies are already planning to hit the ground running in January. So, let’s keep up the pace…

The summer of 2021 also marked the successful hosting of Gate4SPICE, which focused on effective modeling with the ASPICE model. A variety of presentations took place, followed by group discussions, all in a pleasant outdoor setting that was literally a breath of fresh air on a fascinating topic. We are co-organizing the next North American Gate4SPICE on October 14. This time it will be held at IBM in downtown Detroit. More soon!

Another change we’ve witnessed this year is that companies have been budgeting next year’s finances even earlier than normal. As was the case for 2020 and 2021, nervousness surrounding the pandemic and chip shortages has resulted in many companies deciding to wait and see what happens, shifting some budgets back into Q3 and Q4. Despite this, there are no indications that 2022 will be following the same pattern, and the more ambitious companies are already planning to hit the ground running in January. So, let’s keep up the pace…

Steve Tengler

KUGLER MAAG CIE North America

Automotive Cybersecurity. State of Practice 2020

Together with experts from leading car manufacturers and suppliers, Kugler Maag Cie conducted qualitative interviews to discuss the current state of cybersecurity in the car industry. In addition, the experts we talked to highlighted a number of areas where front-line staff working on projects will need further hands-on support to understand and apply cybersecurity requirements. Our report – Automotive Cybersecurity. State of Practice – builds directly on our assessment, providing practical help on key issues faced by the industry.

Automotive Cybersecurity. State of Practice is aimed at practitioners who face the day-to-day challenge of implementing cybersecurity requirements in line with project goals. The focus lies in continuous tasks, from planning the initial concept of a connected vehicle to its anticipated end of service. Based on extensive expert interviews, the report provides a variety of insights into the impact of security requirements, also demonstrating how requirements can be implemented on both an organizational and project level.

Kugler Maag Cie is accredited as a C-type inspection body by the German National Accreditation Body (DAkkS). Under this accreditation, we conduct functional safety assessments according to ISO 26262. As part of this, we check whether functional safety has been achieved by inspecting and evaluating the required evidence of activities. This assessment can take place at various stages of the safety life cycle, covering key activities completed and in progress up to that point. The FSA incorporates the results of the safety management system audit.

DIN EN ISO/IEC 17020:2012, Kugler Maag Cie successfully demonstrated its expertise in conducting inspections in the following areas of automotive functional safety: systems, components, hardware, and software. Kugler Maag Cie is accredited accordingly under the number D-IS-21267-01. Subsequent to the formal accreditation process under dent inspection body, you can trust in our services as part of your functional safety activities. As an independent inspection body, you can trust in our services as part of your functional safety activities.

A demanding market

Ask if Chinese automotive clients are the fastest-changing customers in the world and Kugler Maag will reply YES.

Ask if Chinese automotive companies are the fastest when it comes to product launches and Kugler Maag will reply YES.

Ask if Chinese car companies only develop cheap ECUs and Kugler Maag Cie will say NO.

Domestic carmakers are undoubtedly among the most demanding customers – they know the magic triangle of project management, but they don’t bother with it. Price, quality, and lead times – they take it all. Good if you’re in the customer’s shoes; tough if you’re a supplier responsible for making things happen.

Yes, it has happened: China is now the world’s largest market for alternative drives – and for the next generation of connectivity.

Cars now span everything from pure and hybrid electric vehicles to intelligent connected cars. So, the future is rolling forward nicely on Chinese roads. To drive this development, Chinese manufacturers are recruiting large numbers of software engineers.

With our subsidiary in Shanghai, the Kugler Maag Cie Group is right in the thick of the action when it comes to Chinese E/E developers. This is where Automotive integrated Development comes into play: Rigid engineering becomes a prerequisite for future-oriented engineering. But why? The answer is obvious: You save time and money by getting your tasks done at the right time. Better yet, you know the non-functional requirements of industry standards in advance. Of course, the very best way to do this is to design your system architecture with scalability and implementation of the unknown in mind. As we see with our Chinese customers, AiD allows you to anticipate relevant development phases so you can incorporate required actions into your planning and, if necessary, into your system architecture.

Kailai Sun

KUGLER MAAG CIE China

Is open source in need of a can opener?

Many people are already familiar with the phrase »open source is eating the world«. Although this describes the way open source impacts many aspects of modern life, it’s especially pertinent to product development. But does it also apply to the automotive industry? Does the industry really need free and open-source software (FOSS) – and if so, does FOSS need a can opener to get into the aluminum/steel/composite cans we call cars?

To find out, we’ve spent recent months designing and conducting a State of Practice survey. The idea was to identify the current state of open-source use, contributions to open source, and how it’s managed in the automotive industry. Above all, we’re interested in the discrepancy between bold press releases on this topic and the impression that few automotive companies seem to be actively contributing to open-source projects. What’s going on?

Through in-depth interviews with (open source) software experts at manufacturers, tier 1 ... n, and industry outsiders, our starting point was an assessment of the current situation. Next, we looked into the future and asked what potential the interviewees foresee for FOSS in the automotive industry. 

Our industry has its own set of constraints. There are strict functional safety standards (ISO 26262) and a general state of development (Automotive SPICE®). At first glance, some FOSS projects and methods seem to contradict these systematic requirements. In addition, intense high pressure in the industry to comply with regulations and warranty obligations overlaps with a traditional tendency among industry incumbents to protect their intellectual property. Together, this creates a tough playing field. How will FOSS deal with these constraints and established business models? Will FOSS even challenge them?

As is so often the case, the initial answer is: possibly, but it’s not that simple. You will read the full story in our report scheduled for November 2021. In the next issue of Concepts, we will provide you with more details and your ordering options.

Teaching old dogs new tricks – that’s how you could sum up the business of Kugler Maag Cie. However, to be leader of the pack it means we also have to teach ourselves new tricks. We have to try out new techniques, evaluate them, and finally learn how to apply them in order to fulfill our own ambition, which is to pass on our knowledge to others, as comprehensibly as possible. To see some of the results of our continuous learning experiences for yourself – at any time and free of charge – try out our Video Campus on YouTube. Our channel offers a variety of smart tutorials, most filmed as entry-level videos on cybersecurity, functional safety, and Automotive SPICE®.
 

Our experts offer a variety of concisely presented key insights, underpinned by useful animations to lighten up the topic. Let’s be honest: When was the last time you watched an interesting, vivid, and fun presentation on a dull engineering topic?

Until now we’ve posted twenty videos on our Campus Channel, with new ones added every month.

//Visit our Video Campus